Thursday, June 20, 2019

A thickness-mode piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer annular array using a PMN–PZT single crystal

Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies were used to develop a thickness-mode piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (Tm-pMUT) annular array utilizing a lead magnesium niobate–lead zirconate titanate (PMN–PZT) single crystal prepared by the solid-state single-crystal-growth method. Dicing is a conventional processing method for PMN–PZT single crystals, but MEMS technology can be adopted for the development of Tm-pMUT annular arrays and has various advantages, including fabrication reliability, repeatability, and a curved element shape. An inductively coupled plasma–reactive ion etching process was used to etch a brittle PMN–PZT single crystal selectively. Using this process, eight ring-shaped elements were realized in an area of 1  ×  1 cm2. The resonance frequency and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the Tm-pMUT annular array were 2.66 (±0.04) MHz, 3.18 (±0.03) MHz, and 30.05%, respectively, in the air. The maximum positive acoustic pressure in water, measured at a distance of 7.27 mm, was 40 kPa from the Tm-pMUT annular array driven by a 10 Vpp sine wave at 2.66 MHz without beamforming. The proposed Tm-pMUT annular array using a PMN–PZT single crystal has the potential for various applications, such as a fingerprint sensor, and for ultrasonic cell stimulation and low-intensity tissue stimulation.



Source:IOPscience

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Friday, June 14, 2019

High infrared transmittance CdS single crystal grown by physical vapor transport

Φ55 × 15 mm2 CdS bulk single crystal with high infrared transmittance was grown by physical vapor transport. The single crystal has a consistent structure from top to bottom, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The (002) full-width at half-maximum of the X-ray diffraction was measured to be 60.00 arcsec, indicating a good quality of the structure. Hall mobility, specific resistivity, and carrier concentration for the top and bottom of the crystal were observed as well. Transmittance for the CdS single crystal was measured to be higher than 70% from 2.5 to 4.5 µm, making the single crystal an important candidate for infrared window materials. Furthermore, the absorption mechanism of the CdS single crystal was analyzed.




Source:IOPscience

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Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Growth, structural and mechanical studies of phthalic acid single crystals grown in two different solutions

Good quality pure Phthalic acid single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Phthalic acid 1(PA1) crystals were grown in Ammonium Oxalate aqueous solution. From the aqueous solution of Ammonium Bromide, Phthalic acid 2 (PA2) crystals were grown. Single crystal x-ray diffraction and Mechanical characterizations of slow evaporation grown single crystals of PA1 and PA2 were analyzed in this article. Lattice parameters, space group and crytal system were found from Single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. Optical tranmittance study reaveal the optical perfection of the crystals. Mechanical properties such as Vicker's microhardness number, work hardening index, standard hardness values, Yield strength, fracture toughness, brittleness index and elastic Stiffness constant values were determined using Vicker's microhardness tester.





Source:IOPscience

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Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Structural and optical properties of LuVO4 single crystals

The synthesis of large single crystals with good optical quality which is a preliminary condition for the practical applications of these materials frequently is complicated. It is found that large LuVO4 single crystals with high optical quality are possible to be prepared using high temperature solution growth method. It is obtained by X-ray crystallographic analysis that the grown crystals possess centrosymmetric tetragonal structure with the point group symmetry D4h and space group I41/amd (zircon-type structure). The unit cell parameters of a = 7.0236 Å, b = 7.0236 Å, c = 6.2293 Å, volume = 307.30(3) Å3 are measured. The crystals composition as well as vanadium oxidation state were measured in order to confirm that the crystal phase is mainly LuVO4. Optical transmission and Raman Spectroscopy are further performed on LuVO4 single crystal to reveal the optical quality and structure details


Source:IOPscience

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Thursday, May 23, 2019

PVT growth of AlN single crystals with the diameter from nano- to centi-meter level

Physical vapor transport (PVT) is the most successful and widely used approach for bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) single crystals. During the process of PVT growing AlN crystals, crucible materials, the growth setup, and the growth parameters (e.g., temperature distribution, growth pressure) are crucial. This work proposes a detailed study on the PVT growth of single AlN crystals with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters. AlN crystals with different sizes are grown by spontaneous nucleation. Furthermore, it discusses and contrasts the growth conditions and mechanisms of AlN crystals with different sizes. The structural and optical properties of the AlN crystals are also involved.


Source:IOPscience

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Thursday, May 9, 2019

Growth of square Si single bulk crystals with large side-face widths using noncontact crucible method

The noncontact crucible method was used to prepare square Si single bulk crystals. The size of the square part of the ingots was determined by the side-face width of the four-cornered pattern that appeared on the top surface. We obtained square Si single crystals with sizes of 9.4 × 9.7 and 10.9 × 11.0 cm2 that had no fan-shaped {110} faces and had diagonal lengths of up to 91% of the crucible diameter. To obtain large square Si single bulk crystals with a large side-face width using the present method, the importance of establishing a larger low-temperature region in the Si melt while maintaining a smaller initial temperature reduction was considered.


Source:IOPscience

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Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s−1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal–polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2–0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ~13.4 MPa and ~16.8 MPa, respectively.


Source:IOPscience

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